Citric juice-mediated synthesis of tellurium nanoparticles with antimicrobial and anticancer properties
David Medina Cruz, William Tien-Street, Bohan Zhang, Xinjing Huang, Ada Vernet Crua, Alfonso Nieto-Argüello, Jorge L. Cholula-Díaz, Lidia Martínez, Yves Huttel, María Ujué González, José Miguel García-Martíne and Thomas J. Webster
Bacterial infections and cancer are two of the most significant concerns that the current healthcare system should tackle nowadays. Green nanotechnology is presented as a feasible solution that is able to produce materials with significant anticancer and antibacterial activity, while overcoming the main limitations of traditional synthesis. In the present work, orange, lemon and lime extracts were used as both reducing and capping agents for the green synthesis of tellurium nanoparticles (TeNPs) using a microwave-assisted reaction. TeNPs showed a uniform size distribution, and rod- and cubic-shapes, and were extensively characterized in terms of morphology, structure and composition using TEM, SEM, XPS, XRD, FTIR and EDX analysis. TeNPs showed an important antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria in a range concentrations from 5 to 50 μg mL−1 over a 24-hour time period. Besides, nanoparticles showed an anticancer effect towards human melanoma cells over 48 hours at concentrations up to 50 μg mL−1. Moreover, the Te nanostructures showed no significant cytotoxic effect towards human dermal fibroblast at concentrations up to 50 μg mL−1. Therefore, we present an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective synthesis of TeNPs using only fruit juices and showing enhanced and desirable biomedical properties towards both infectious diseases and cancer.
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image of OR-TeNPs (A, D), LEM-TeNPs (B, E) and LIM-TeNPs (C, F). The characteristic morphology of the nanostructures was observed using SEM. The upper images (A–C) correspond to secondary electrons micrographs and show the morphology of the obtained structures, while the lower ones (D–F) are taken with back-scattered electrons and provide compositional contrast. The scale bar is the same for all images (500 nm).