Surface chemistry

The colloidal stability of a fluid will depend first, on the dimensions of the particles, which should be sufficiently small so that precipitation due to gravitation forces can be avoided, and second on the charge and surface chemistry, which give rise to both, steric and coulombic repulsions. Additional restrictions  for biomedical applications strongly depend on whether these particles are going to be used for in vivo or in vitro applications.

Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC